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Here is some information about cold fusion. To find other information resources, please go to this page

Cold fusion - A phenomenon that by now is proved, but poorly understood

In 1989 two chemistry professors, Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishman, reported that they had produced cold fusion in an experiment. They electrolysed a solution of sodium deuteroxide in heavy water, using a palladium anode. During the electrolysis an excess heat and radiation was produced, suggesting a fusion process going on in the palladium anode.

Their report was little exact about the experimental settings, and therefore only few other scientists managed to replicate their findings in the first place. Also the experimental system used was such that they did not have absolute controle of the heat transferes during the process, so there was some doubt about what they actually measured. The findings were therefore dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the matter of cold fusion has since generally been regarded as an area of no value.

However, some scientists did succede in replicating the findings, and quietly a lot of positive research findings from experiments of a lot better quality have been published. The phenomenon is again becoming accepted as a legitimate field of research by steadily more scientists.

In spite of this the phenomenon is not well understood. The process produces radiation and helium output that must originate from some kind of nuclear reaction or fusion, but the reactions cannot be exactly the same as the reactions by hot fusion. Secondly, normal understanding of quantum mechanics and nucler processes predict the dedegree of cold fusion to be too small to be detected at all. Therefore other names of the phenomenon are often used, like Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).


By fusion two or more atomic nuclei, protons or neutrons are combined to form a new atomic nucleus. The new nucleus is held together by the strong forces between the heavy particles protons and neutrons. These forces are so strong that they win over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.

However, the strong forces only work at a short distance. Therefore the nucleons (neutrons and protons) must be brought very close together. This is difficult because of the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In traditional fusion this is achieved by very high pressure and temperature in the fusing material.

The mass a helium nucleus (consisting of two protons and two neutrons) and other light nuclei, are less than the mass of the same number of free protons, neutrons or deuterium nuclei. A deuterium nucleus consists of on proton and one neutron. Heavy water contains deuterium instead of ordinary hydrogen and is therefore designed D2O. When fusion occurs, this mass difference cannot be lost. It is converted to kinetic energy and gamma radiation. Therefore fusion of protons, neutrons or kernels of the very lightest elements into heavier elements is a very potent energy source.

One has not yet been able to make a controlled high temperature fusion process that yields more energy than the energy put in. The only practical device by which one has managed to exploit the energy from warm fusion, is the hydrogen bomb.


There is no fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The hypothesis behind the phenomenon is however very simple: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws say that the coordinates and energy state of a particle at one point in time determine the probability of finding a particle a place with some given coordinates at another point of time, but the exact place cannot be predicted. Actually, a particle can be found anywhere at that other time point, put all places do not have the same probability. Some places are very probable, and others are very improbable. Because of this, even a particle that is not in any net motion nevertheless will shift place randomly to some extend, usually very little, but sometimes more.

By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behaviour will as always make the particles shift their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get near enough to let the strong nuclear forces to take action and make them fuse.

The standard theory tells that this cannot happen in such an amount to be detected. Still it does. Either the standard theory is not complete, or one has not learned to use the theory in a right fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complicated, that it is impossible to predict what can happen and what cannot happen with a short glance at the equations.

Cold fusion must also contain other reactions than warm fusion. It is difficult to produce fusion of other things than one deuterium and one tritium kernel by warm fusion. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels easily fuse, and even fusion involving hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported. Neutron and gamma radiation has neither be reported to that extend predicted by the standard understanding.

This is also true about important known warm fusion processes. The heat from the sun is produced by fusion. But the sun does not either radiate according to the standard understanding. So the standard understanding must be inomplete one way or another.


The original experimental system exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of these elements: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20%) in heavy water D2O. Sodium deuteride is sodium hydroxide with heavy hydrogen (deuterium) in the -OH ion, and therefore designed as OD-.

When electricity was applied to this electrolytic system, deuterium atoms were produced at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterum atoms went into the palladium crystal lattice in great extend before combining to D2.

Excess heat was then produced in the electrolytic cell, apart from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were also produced, but the latter two products not in the amounts that would have been produced in a hot fusion. Therefore the fusion reactions in the system are different form those in hot fusion, and probably more complicated.

It is difficult to fuse two helium atoms in standard fusion, and when it occurs, the product is usually one tritium atom and one proton.

Not many scientists managed to reproduce the results in the first place, because of unclear documentation from the originators about the conditions set up and used during the experiment. Still some of them succeeded, and gradually the conditions for a successful fusion process have been established. The best fusion occurs when the palladium is somewhat over-saturated, that is when there are nearly as many atoms of deuterium as those of palladium in the crystal. The saturation is controlled by the voltage applied and the speed of the electrolysis.

However, the process seems to be susceptible for tiny variations of parameters, also parameters not yet known. For some reason some palladium electrodes simply will not work, and one is not aware of ecsactly which are the disturbing variations.

The electrolysis in itself is only a means to put deuterium into the palladium crystal matrix, and has nothing to do with the fusion itself. The electrolysis produces separate deuterium atoms in the first place, and those go easily into the crystal matrix before they combine to deuterium atoms.


As seen, cold fusion can be started and maintained when one packs a huge quantity of deuterium kernels into inter-atomic spaces in a crystal lattice. In order to start a fusion process, the density must apparently be the same as in liquid pure deuterium. Since there is no fusion process in liquid deuterium, the crystal lattices probably packs the deuterium kernels together in tight sub-microscopic groups much more dense than the average density in the lattice, and thus facilitating quantum mechanical tunnelling between the kernels in these dense groups.

A great variety of systems showing cold fusion has been discovered in the last years. Most of these use some kind of crystal lattice.

- Fusion seems to occur by electrolysis of a solution of KCL/LiCL/Lid using a palladium anode, but many attempts of result reproduction have failed.

- Cold fusion has been reported in experiments where various metals are bombarded with D+ - ions.

- By applying pressurized deuterium gas upon finely divided palladium, signs of fusion have been produced, and replicated by other scientists.

- By electrical discharge between palladium electrodes in a deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been seen. By such a discharge, plasma consisting of D+ ions and electrons will be formed between the electrodes. The D+ ions will be attracted to the surface of the negative electrode, and a high density of D+ will occur at this surface. Since also these D+ -ions will have a high thermic energy; many of them will be thrown very near each other. Quantum-mechanical tunnelling can then do the rest of the approaching process, so that fusion can take place.

- By reaction of Ni with H2, replicated results showing signs of fusion have been produced. Even though H2, and not D2 has been used, the reaction has still has been reported to take place. This suggests a very different reaction mechanism than that of warm fusion. Some scientists speculate that hydrogen atoms can exist in quantum states where the electron and proton are so near each other that the atom reacts like a neutron.


When gas bubbles in a liquid are exposed to ultrasonic waves that transfere energy to the bobbles, the bobbles can be brought into a state where they rapidly and periodically expand and collapse, syncronized by the sound waves.

Such oscillating bobbles can send out light by certain frequencies of expansions and collapses, and provided the gas is composed in a suited way. Just at the end of each collapse, the spot temperature in the bobble can reach as much as 10 mill degrees, even though the average temperature in the total blending is only a few hundred degrees at most.

When deuterium is a component in the oscillating bobbles, fusion has been observed. This fusion is strictly not cold fusion, but a kind of hot fusion, and the process sends out neutrons, gamma-rays and tritium atoms as predicted by standard understanding.

The process has not yet produced an energy output greater that the input by the ultrasound. The phenomenon is confirmed by independent investigators.


Cold fusion in crystal lattices has been prooved to produce a net energy output. Experimental 1 MW or more experimental reactors has been set up and demonstrated.

Ecperimental reactors has been developed, but no one has yet made a reactor that works stably enough to be of commersial use.

Even though cold fusion do not produce the amout of radioactive and toxic vaste that fision reactors do, they produce some degree of radiation. There may also be a potential for an uncontrolled process leading to overheating and explotions. Therefore there are potential security issues that must either be dismissed as non existant or solved technically.

Commercial household heaters seem to be the first type of reactors some companies try to develop. The hope of the companies is that these will make a way for greater reactors and uses in the market.

By now noone knows how successful cold fusion will be in the energy market. Cold fusion can make a revolution that gives the world cheap clean energy in enormous quantities, but it is too early to predict.


In the following table are listed known conventionl fusion reactions. Even though cold fusion does not seem to conform to any of the listed types in an overt manner, it is probable that the same reactions do occur, but are coupled with auxiliary mechanisms that take away some of the original reaction products.

Reaction Released energy (MeV) per each reaction unit  
D + D --> 3He + n 3.27  
D + D --> T + p 4.03  
D + D --> 4He + gamma photon 23.85  
D + T --> 4He + n 17.59  
p + D --> 3He + gamma photon 5.49  
p + T --> 4He + gamma photon 19.81  



Instruments for the hobby and professional scientist

Welcome to this presentation of equipment useful for the hobby scientist or persons performing hobby field investigation of any kind. Many of the products are of professional standard, and can therefore also be used during professional scientific explorations.

On this page you can find equipment you can use to study distant objects or events, equipment for night vision, equipment to take distance fotographs, tools to study objects under magnification and to save magified pictures of objects on your PC or the internet.

Please click at the links to learn more or buy. By clicking at any link, you wil not only find the products exhibited here, but a large collection of equipment with special caracteristics.

Furter down on this page there is an article about cold fusion, a phenomenon extensively studied in scientific laboratories, but that is very poorly reported in the popular press.


Medexsupply - a great place to find microsocpes and scientific instruments to be used in the medical and biological fields -This is a great supplier of medial products for professional and home use, and for all types of medical and biological scientific products. You can also find instruments to measure physical parameters in the surroundings.

Orion - A great shop for telescopes and binoculars - This is a great shop for telescopes, binoculars and hobby astronomy

Orion Telescopes and Binoculars

General stores of low priced products - among others also scientific instruments like microscopes, telescopes, binoculars and cameras - This store has all kind of products, including optical instruments. Please click at this banner to go into the store and see the whole stock. It is also advicable to visit this store to search for products of other kinds that you need, since there is a good chance to get them for a very low prize.

Good general hobby stores where you also can find instruments for hobby science - In addition to RC models and airsoft guns, you can also find microscopes, telescopes, metal detectors, chemistry kits, electronic kits and components, physics kits, technology kits and other hobby scientific products. The first of these stores has a very great inventory of electronic circuits and components.

Trend Times Toy Store


By clicking at any of the following links, you will also find other microscopes than those exhibited at this page, also advanced scientific microscopes. You will also find a huge collection of telescopes.

A classic high quality microscope set

48 Piece Microscope Science Kit

48 Piece Microscope Science Kit

48 Piece Microscope Science Kit

This microscope let you watch all the images at TV or computer screen and easily save those images that you are especially interested in for later view or distribution.

Uncle Milton MegaView TV Microscope

Uncle Milton MegaView TV Microscope

Uncle Milton MegaView TV Microscope

A microscope to carry with you in your pocket or back-pack. It magnifies up to 100 times, a magnification that allow you to see most interesting detaills.

Olympia Sports 11041 Pocket Microscope

Olympia Sports 11041 Pocket Microscope

This is the perfect carry-with-you magnifier-microscope. Just 5 1/4 x 1 3/4 x 3/4 with a built-in light source and optics to let you see objects 30 times their actual size. Uses two AA batteries (not incl.) and features a center focus wheel for precise one-hand operation. Ideal for inspecting gems photos stamps coins and learning about plants and insects.

A high standard microscope fine for hobby scientists or students



LW Scientific Revelation lll Achromat Binocular Microscope

A professional microscope, but not higher prized than most hobby scientists can afford it.



LW Scientific Revelation lll Series


Celestron 21062 AstroMaster 70EQ

Celestron 21062 AstroMaster 70EQ

  • Optical Design: Refractor.
  • Aperture (mm): 70 mm (2.76).
  • Focal Length (mm): 900 mm (35).
  • Focal Ratio: 13.
  • Eyepiece 1 (mm): 20 mm (0.79).
  • Magnification 1: 45 x.
  • Eyepiece 2 (mm): 10 mm (0.39).
  • Magnification 2: 90 x.
  • Finderscope: Built-on StarPointer.
  • Star Diagonal: Erect Image Diagonal - 1.25.
  • Mount: CG-2 Equatorial.
  • Tripod: 1.25 steel tube legs.
  • Highest Useful Magnification: 165 x.
  • Lowest Useful Magnification: 10 x.
  • Limiting Stellar Magnitude: 11.7.
  • Resolution (Rayleigh): 1.99 arc seconds.
  • Resolution (Dawes): 1.66 arc seconds.
  • Light Gathering Power (Com

  • Celestron 31042 AstroMaster 114EQ

    Celestron 31042 AstroMaster 114EQ

  • TheSkyX - First Light Edition astronomy sofitware with a 10000 object database printable sky maps and 75 enhanced images.
  • Optical Design: Newtonian Reflector.
  • Aperture (mm): 114 mm (4.49).
  • Focal Length (mm): 1000 mm (39).
  • Focal Ratio: 8.77.
  • Eyepiece 1 (mm): 20 mm (0.79).
  • Magnification 1: 50 x.
  • Eyepiece 2 (mm): 10 mm (0.39).
  • Magnification 2: 100 x.
  • Finderscope: Built-on StarPointer.
  • Mount: CG-2 Equatorial.
  • Tripod: 1.25 steel tube legs.
  • Highest Useful Magnification: 269 x.
  • Lowest Useful Magnification: 16 x.
  • Limiting Stellar Magnitude: 12.8.
  • Resolution (Rayleigh): 1.22 arc seconds.
  • Resolution (Dawes): 1.02 arc seconds.
  • Light Gathering Power (Compared to human eye): 265 x.
  • Angular


    Metal detectors are usefull instruments in field investigation work or exploration to find valuable things hidden in the ground or hidden metallic objects of scientific interest.

    UNI-T UT387B Multifunctional Handheld Wall Detector Metal Wood AC Cable Finder Scanner

    UNI-T UT387B Multifunctional Handheld Wall Detector Metal Wood AC Cable Finder Scanner

    Features:Professional wall detector can be used to detect metal, wood and AC cable hidden in the wall.Keep the instrument close to the wall and slowly move it. When it has detected metal, wood or AC cable, it will display the signal strength and beep.According to signal strength, you can judge the exact location of the materials which can avoid drilling failure.The detector can detect an AC cable with a voltage higher than 110V, 50-60Hz, the sensibility may be weak when the cable is grounded.The ZOOM key is helpful to detect small things or things buried in deep.High accuracy, with a maximum detection depth of 80mm.Portable size, convenient to use.Note:Clean the detector with dry and soft cloth. Do not clean it with detergents or other chemicals.

    Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages

    Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages

    Orbitor Prospector PR2000 Auto-Calibrating Metal Detector For All Ages

    Electromagnetic Radiation Detector EMF Meter Tester Equipment

    Electromagnetic Radiation Detector EMF Meter Tester Equipment

    Features:Simple operation and highly sensitive.Can detect the power of electromagnetic radiation around home electronics, electric wire, industrial equipment and so on.Wide range of detectable frequency.Data hold function.Applications:For detecting environmental electromagnetic radiation: indoors, computer station room, industrial control room, electric wire, high voltage wire, monitors, etc. For detecting home electronics: cellphone, PC, TV set, copy machine, fax machine, microwaves, refrigerator and so on.NOTES:The dosimeter is for testing the electric field radiation. If the test equipment earthing shielded, the test would fail. Metal will shield the radiation, too.If the meter keeps display "0" while testing, please change a battery and test again.


    TIF Instruments TIF8900 Combustable Gas Detector

    TIF Instruments TIF8900 Combustable Gas Detector

  • Solid state sensor technology long life and precision

  • Broad band of combustible gas detection

  • Sensitivity as low as 5 ppm

  • LED Leak Intensity Lights

  • Adjustable sensitivity Audible Geiger counter signal

  • This is the perfect tool to be used in a situation where a combustible gas vapor or residue needs to be found.Its 16 stainless probe for hard to reach places. It comes in a rugged custom carrying case. Applications include: Gas lines and pipes Exhaust and fuel leaks Propane filing stations Fuel in marine bilges Heat Exchanger leaks Check manholes for leak Detect arson residue IAQ tests and Liquid or gas fired heating systems.


    Geiger Counter, Plug-in

    Geiger Counter, Plug-in

    Science Source Geiger Counter, Plug-in

    Geiger Counter

    Geiger Counter

    Science Source Geiger Counter

    Geiger Counter, Digital Readout

    Geiger Counter, Digital Readout

    Science Source Geiger Counter, Digital Readout


    By clicking at any of the following links, you will also find a huge collection of other binoculars in adition to those exhibited here, for example special water-proof and fog proof binoculars to be used in marine environments. If you are interested in binoculars with a special combination of optical caracteristics, you will find it in the collection.

    Unipride KC247L Spyer Military Zoom Binocular

    Unipride KC247L Spyer Military Zoom Binocular

    Spyer Army Force Ultra Zoom Binocular let you see things up to 150 times closer. To catch every move of wild animals from 450 yards away you need a Spyer Army Force Ultra Zoom Binoculars. Our Spyer Army Force Ultra Zoom Binoculars gets you what you need to entertain your eyes. To see stars in your spare time you cannot feel like an astronomer having a telescopic trip in space if you do not have the Spyer Army Force Ultra Zoom Binoculars. To watch a sport game in stadium and you want to catch every swing of your favor players you will cry like a baby if you do not have our Spyer Army Force Ultra Zoom Binocularsits zoom allows you magnify between 20 and 144 times closer and 70 times more light coming into the lens. Youll experience like you are next to the subject. Why miss out this great binocular that every soldier and captain must have?

    18X62 Night Vision High Times HD Binocular Telescope

    18X62 Night Vision High Times HD Binocular Telescope

    Objective (mm):50; Size :17.5x18x4.5CM; Netto weight (kg):0.778; High Definition, watertight; Prism Type:BAK4; Field of View:56m/1000m; magnification:10x bis 14.9x


    With a camera drone you can easily explore areas from above

    Prowler 2.4GHz 4.5CH Camera RC Spy Drone

    Prowler 2.4GHz 4.5CH Camera RC Spy Drone

    Patrol your surrounding and capture all the footage with this awesome camera RC spy drone!

    Big GPS Drone Remote Control Quadcopter Easy To Fly RC W/Camera

    Big GPS Drone Remote Control Quadcopter Easy To Fly RC W/Camera

    Big GPS Drone Remote Control Quadcopter Easy To Fly RC W/Camera


    By clicking at any of the following links, you will also find other typexs of science kits too: physics, energy, chenistry, electronics.

    Power House Science Kit Developed By Physicist Uwe Wandrey

    Power House Science Kit Developed By Physicist Uwe Wandrey

    Power House Science Kit Developed By Physicist Uwe Wandrey

    Physics Discovery Science Kit W/100+ Building Pieces

    Physics Discovery Science Kit W/100+ Building Pieces

    Physics Discovery Science Kit W/100+ Building Pieces

    Olympia Sports 16623 Physics Pro Advanced Physics Kit

    Olympia Sports 16623 Physics Pro Advanced Physics Kit

    With this kit you can continue your study of statics and dynamics from previous lessons and begin your study of more advanced topics in physics including fluid dynamics energy oscillation hydraulics and pneumatics. By adding advanced topics like fluid dynamics to your physics repertoire you can now build some really spectacular models and devices such as a wind tunnel pneumatic shocks and a hydraulic lift. You will see how physics extends far beyond the classroom giving us an amazing set of tools that can be applied in the real world to engineer marvelous things. The main focus of the kit is the behavior of the two most important fluids in our world water and air and objects immersed in them. You will investigate how air and water rest and flow what they can carry and how they move. With experiments and models you will find out what forces work on them and what kinds of energy they possess. You will learn how ships float and airplanes fly why a streamlined shape lets a car drive faster and how power plants convert a current of water into electrical current. The 96-page full-color experiment manual has two major sections. In the first part you will enter the physics lab where you will get to know the properties of air and water and become familiar with currents and energy. There is a series of 17 experiments in which you will start building smaller models. In the second part you will move on to the workshop where you will build 14 larger models of complex real-world devices. More than 213 parts are included in this kit which are compatible with all of our other Physics kits. Ages 10 and up.