The Pantera webstore

Natural anto-aging medicines - tp take away aging signs in the skin, the mental status, the inner organs, the sexual functions and the body shape.


Click her to see an exhibition of quality cosmetics, daily skin care products, and serums, salves, pills against all common skin problems in kids and adults, including acne, rosacea, vitiligo, warts, stretchmarks.

Click here to see an exhibition of pills, creams, devices and toys for men and woman to improve sexual fitness amplify sexual satisfaction and enlarge the erections, penile size and breast size.

Click here for: Products to help for edema, hemorrhoids, constipation, rheumatism, cold and flu, UTI, candida, fatigue, poor sleep, prostata trouble, PMS, poor thyroid function, diabetes, ailments

Main many - car products, rc models and hobby, fashion, natural medicines, erotic products, jewelry and watches, computers and electronics

Trend Times has hundreds of toys for you

Natural restoration and anti-aging drugs for the skin, the mental functions, the sexual capacities, inner organs and generally for the whole body.

Anti-aging Products for Body, Hair, Skin and Mental capacities

Welcome to this online store with high class products for the care of your skin and your hair, with medicines to treat skin problems, and with high quality cosmetic items. Pleace click on the brand labels to learn more or order. Further down on this page you also will find some information about skin anatomy and the changing in the skin during aging

Anti-aging drugs with effect on the whole body

Products to henhance and rejuvenate mental abilities and the function of the nerve system

Topical products to rejuvenate the skin

Products to treat red skin, inflamed skin, swallen skin and puffy eyes

Products for hair regain and rejuvenation

Good stores of anti-aging and repair products for the skin, for the sexual functions and for all other parts of body physiology and anatomy

General knowladge about skin anatomy, skin physiology and skin aging

Natural anti-aging drugs for the whole body

GenFx and Genf20Plus - pills to reverse aging for men and women - get smoother and firmer skin, better muscles intactness, stronger sexual life and stronger physiology - Human growth hormone has proved to help regain skin thickness, muscle intactness, a jouvenile muscle/fat-ratio and other properties of youth. These products stimulate your body to produce more growth hormone. In addition to a rejuventation of the skin and muscles, you can also expect more sensorial acuity, better allertness, better sex drive, have it easier to loose weight, have more energy, better management of blood sugar and have a better blood circulation. Please look at the products and choose that which suits best.

Provacyl - anti-aging pills for men - peak effects are rejuvenation of sexual functions, increased feeling of vitality and less body fat - This product is formulated especially for men that are over their middle ages or of other reasons have a declined production and controle of the hormons that are necessary to maintain a youthful sexual function, a youthful muscle intactness and a yourhful fat distribution. The most pronounced effects are increased sexual performance, reduction of body fat mass, more muscle mass and increased well-being.

Please click here for a thorrough description

Seabuckthorn products - To enhance youth, energy and restistance against diseases - Seabuck thorn is a bush with berries containing an extremely rich blending of anti-oxidants and nutritive compunds, like omega oils 3,6,7,9, vitamins and minerals. It grows in most of the temperated zones throughout Eurasia and is in the whole of this area regarded as an extremely valuable healthy resource. These products are based on material from the Himalayan region which have a reputation of extra high quality.

The benefits of seabuckthorn are: Seabuckthorn counteracts general aging, helps to repair damages on the cellular level and stimulate growth, development and repair of organs. Sea buckthorn improves the immune system. It gives you more general energy and stamina.  It impovres especially the integrity and function of the heart and blood circulation, mucos membranes in the whole body, the digestive system, the inner linings of the urogenital system, the skin and hair, the eyes, the brain and nervous system. It helps to relieve sore joints.

Seabuckthorn Omega7 Pure

Seabuckthorn Omega7 Pure

Seabuckthorn Omega7 Pure 750 Milliliter Liquid

Seabuckthorn Berry Oil 50 GM

Seabuckthorn Berry Oil 50 GM, click buy to see poctures and read more

100% Natural. A Herbal Remedies Store by Itself. Cardiotonic & Antioxidant . Considered as Dietary Supplement. Peptic, Duodenal and Skin Care.

Seabuckthorn Seed Oil 10 ml

Seabuckthorn Seed Oil 10 ml - click buy to see poctures and read more

Acts Quickly. Cruelty Free . Helps Relieve Symptoms of Rosacea, Eczema, Acne and Dermatitis. Is Certified Organic. Is Readily Absorbed . Organic / All Natural. Sources Traditional Asian Beauty Treatments . USDA Organic. Works for All Skin Types.

PYCNOGENOL - an anti-oxidant helpful against chronic inflammatory processes, tissue damage and aging signs in many places of the body, espcially the skim, the eyes, the genitals, the joints and blood circulation - Pycnogenol is a pine bark extract that may be useful in the treatment of: Degenarative aging changes, ADHD, muscular cramps, diabetes, diabetic microangiopathy, menstrual problems, erectile dysfunction, gingival bleeding, hypertension, blood clots, retinopathy, high cholesterole, male infertility, skin hyperpigmentation, sunburn, systemic lupus erytematosus, edema and leg sores.

Pycnogenol 60VC

Pycnogenol 60VC - click buy to see poctures and read more

Dietary Supplement. A Natural Antioxidant Flavonoid.

Pycnogenol 60 Veg Caps

Pycnogenol 60 Veg Caps - click buy to see poctures and read more

Dietary Supplement. Clinically Studied*. Natures Super Antioxidant*. Supports Normal Circulatory Health*. Look, Feel, and Live Better. French Maritime Pine Bark Extract. Non-GMO*. Soy Free.

Resveratrol - an anti-oxidant substance from grapes and other fruits especially good at counteracting inflammations in the circulatory systems and at preventing and repairing degeneration and aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

Raw Resveratrol

Raw Resveratrol

Raw Resveratrol 60 Vegan Capsules

Resveratrol With Pterostilbene

Resveratrol With Pterostilbene

Resveratrol With Pterostilbene 100 MG 60 Veggie Caps

LECITHINE SUPPLEMENT - for skin and nerval system rejuvenation and cardiovascular health - An extra supplement of lecithin may help fight aging of the skin, the nervous system and the rest of the body and to help all physiological systems in the body. The reason for this is that lecithin and the components of lecithin are used both as builidng blocks for all cells and to make nurotransmittors and tissue hormones. The isolation sheets around nerve fibers contain especially much lecithin. It is also useful by training for building muscles.

Lecithin Granules Super Strength

Lecithin Granules Super Strength

Lecithin Granules Super Strength 16 Ounces Granules

Egg Yolk Lecithin

Egg Yolk Lecithin

Egg Yolk Lecithin 600 MG 90 Capsules

Aged Garlic Extract with Lecithin Formula 104

Aged Garlic Extract with Lecithin Formula 104

Aged Garlic Extract with Lecithin Formula 104 300 Capsules

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Natural anti-aging drugs for the brain and nervous system

To increase your allertness, thinking power and memory capacity - Brain Pills - These pills will enhance your allertness and acuity. They will boost your thinking capacity, problem solving speed and mental endurance. They will make you able to store much more information in your memory and use less time to store and retrieve the information. These pills are constructed and endorced by neurological experts and also recommended by several celebrities that depend heavily on their mental power. Among the working ingredients are Citicoline, Bacopa monnieri, Ginkgo biloba, phosphatidylcerine, tyrosine and L-theanine. The pills are ideal for every person with a mentally demanding work, for students and anyone that have got mentally exhausted by the impacts of daily life..

To help by poor memory or mental exhaustion - Cyntol - The impacts of daily life, often combined with lack of certain nutrients can cause reduced ability to catch information in the memory and fetch up stored information for use when you need it, and can also slow down other cognitive abilities. This product is formulated to improve memory and gognitive power by supplying nutrients especially important for mental functions. It also contains extracts of herbs like bacopa, gionkgo biloba and ginseng that enhance the blood circulation and nutrient delivery in the nervous system and stimulate nerval functions.

Click here to buy or learn more - Cyntol

Extracts of the chinese herb corduceps sinensis to increase the allertness, awakeness, memory functions and other powers of the brain and nervous system



Cordyceps 520 MG 100 Capsules



Cordyceps 1 Fluid Ounces Liquid

A combination off the fungus corbyceps sinensis, Ginkgo biloba and artichoke to rejuvenate and strengthen memory, mental functions, immune system, lung health, liver functions and general vitality.

Doctor's Best Ultra Cordyceps Plus, Veggie Caps - 60 ea

Doctor's Best Ultra Cordyceps Plus, Veggie Caps - 60 ea

Dietary Supplements Science-Based Nutrition&Trade; Helps Improve Energy, Stamina &Amp; Vitality* Fortified With Ginkgo Biloba &Amp; Artichoke Leaf Extracts Helps Boost Energy &Amp; Stamina* Helps Improve Vitality* Supports Lung Health* Supports Liver Function* Supports Memory &Amp; Mental Ability* Vegan Ultra Cordyceps Plus Contains Pure Cultivated Cordyceps Sinensis, An Herb Used For Centuries In China As A Vitalizing Tonic That Helps Improve Energy And Supports The Function Of Various Organs And Systems.* Ultra Cordyceps Plus Contains A Strain Of Cultivated Cordyceps Recognized By The Chinese Government As Most Similar To Wild Cordyceps Sinensis, A Rare Fungus Found In The Tibetan Highlands Of China. Two Herbs That Support The Rejuvenating Effect Of Cordyceps Are Added: Ginkgo Biloba Extract And Artichoke Leaf Extract.

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Anti-aging and general healing products for the skin

Instantwriclereduser - a serum for the skin to instantly reduce wrincles and give it a smooth young look - This topical serum contains a peptid that works in the same way as botox. It makes wrincling cramps in the fine muscles under the skin cease. The serum also helps the skin to ratain moisture better, which also takes away wricles. The full effect lasts around 8 hours.

Argan Oil - a botanical oil with strong anti-aging effects for the skin, the hair and the nails - The oil decellerate aging of the skin, gives healing from fine lines and wrinckles, deeply remoisturizes the skin, induces repair of the colagen and elastin networks, helps repair sun damaged skin. The oil protects against free radicals, it Combatts acne, eczema, and psoriasis, it is fine to strengthen the nails with, and it helps to repairs frizzy and split hair. This product is a pure cold-pressed argan oil. Argan oil has a very long traditional use in Marocco and other north African countries as a general remedy to keep the skin young and healthy and to protect against harsh environmental impacts.

Phyto350 - anti-aging pills for the skin - This cream can effectively reduce stretchmarks and skin misfiguring. It has been clinically proven to cure up to 72,5% of the stretch mark amount after use in two months, and the improvement continues by use of the product also after that time. The basic effect of the product is a stimulation of production of skin tissue proteins that give elasticity and sturdyness to the skin.

Kollagen intensive - against wrinkles and skin aging - This is a clinically proven natural topical drug to fight back wrinkles and other aging changes in the skin. A main working principle of this remedy is to make the skin produce more collagen, the skin's most important structure protein and to better maintain the structure of the collagen framework.

Effective tonic and serum to counteract aging signs and to stimulate healing of skin injuries This skin healing stimulating topical has a general effect, and is suited for skin that is injured, aged and damaged in many ways without one kind of damage being more prominent than the other.

Exuviance SkinRise Bionic Tonic 50ml/1.7oz

Exuviance SkinRise Bionic Tonic 50ml/1.7oz

A powerful hydrating antioxidant & anti-aging toner Contains a triple blend of Polyhydroxy Acids (PHAs) & marine botanicals Helps hydrate condition & soothe skin Blended with Pro-Vitamins A C & E that offer multi-antioxidant protection Loaded with eucalyptus & cucumber extracts to refine & invigorate skin Infused with green tea extract to protect skin from the damaging effects of free radicals Leaves skin firm clear sleek luminous & healthy looking Alcohol-free

Exuviance Vespera Bionic Serum 30ml/1oz

Exuviance Vespera Bionic Serum 30ml/1oz

An antioxidant-rich anti-aging concentrated serum Formulated with (AHA) Mandelic Acid (PHAs) Lactobionic Acid & Gluconolactone Helps visibly reduce the appearance of fine lines & wrinkles while improving skin texture Contains Pro-Vitamins A C & E that offer multi-antioxidant protection Loaded with marine botanicals that soothe stressed skin Skin appears clearer softer smoother & younger looking Ideal for use following glycolic acid peels microdermabrasion & laser procedures

Anti-aging, moisturizing and firming cream and serums with pomegranate - Serum, day cram and night cream to firm, reverse wrincles, make the skin elastic and give moisture. By clicking through these links you can also find eye cream and hand cream in the same series.

Weleda Weleda Pomegranate Firming Serum

Weleda Weleda Pomegranate Firming Day Cream

Weleda Weleda Pomegranate Firming Night Cream

Good products to prevent and treat stretchmarks

Clarins Stretch Mark Minimizer 200ml/6.8oz

Clarins Stretch Mark Minimizer 200ml/6.8oz

A targeted effective stretch mark treatment Formulated with Crowberry an innovation agent that helps maintain skin texture Blended with centella extract to soothe & comfort skin Offers an extensive action on the appearance of stretch marks Leaves body skin soft smooth & elastic Great for use during pregnancy To use: Apply to the thighs hips abdomen & breasts using the Clarins application method

Stretch Mark Prevention Lotion

Stretch Mark Prevention Lotion

Stretch Mark Prevention Lotion 8 Ounces Lotion

Phototherapy to heal from skin problems, Wrincles, sun damage and aging signs - This devices makes red light that helps against aging signs and skin damages of arious kind. Through this link you can also find other light therapy deices specifically designed to treat acne and other skin>

Wilshire CCOL Light Therapy for Skin Rejuvenation

Wilshire CCOL Light Therapy for Skin Rejuvenation

The Caribbean Sun is a highly effective light therapy light box that uses LED lamps of specific wavelengths to enhance skin tones increase skin collagen to promote elasticity enhance cell renewal and minimize fine lines and wrinkles. At the same time it aids in the healing of wounds and greatly improves skin texture. This economically priced solidly built professional model comes with a 100 money back guarantee and a full ten year warranty that covers every part of the light box including the LED lamps. Model CCOL contains two 5 x 7 surface panels which are angled for optimal coverage. Quality all metal construction. Adjustable tilting stand provides for perfect positioning. UV shielded two on/off switches and 6 ft. cord. Operates on all voltages 100220V (24 watts) 4 1/2 lbs.

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Products to treat red skin, inflamed skin, swallen skin and puffy eye surroundings

As one ages, many people experience that the vessles in their face and other places get widened, they look ruptured, the skin is also often inflamed and swallen and the face is generally red in an unpleasant way. The condition is also called rosacea. Here are presented good products that help against this type of skin aging.

TREATMENT FOR RED SKIN AND INFLATED BLOOD VESSELS - Rubactum pills: - This medicine will help by symptoms like: Facial redness, spider-like vessels in the face, red enlarged nose, acne-type of skin irritation, burning or stinging sensations in the affected places, bloodshot and rinning eyes.

Please click here to read more or buy - Rubactum

A clinically proven serum to get rid of unpleasant redness and infalted red vessels in the skin - Skinception:

Product to immediately get help for puffy eye surroundings and lines around the eyes - You can use this product when you have an immediate need to reduce signs of tiredness and aging around the eyes. Immediately remove puffiness, wrinkles, and age lines, sealing them away for 8 to 12 hours.  Eight hour line eraser actually temporarily removes existing wrinkles. Through this link you can also find another product for removal of such agings signs that works on a longer time skale, but with permanent results.

Eight Hour Line Eraser - for sudden removal of puffyness and lines around the eyes

Please click here - Robanda Triple Action Eye Gel for permanent removal of eye surrounding aging signs

Serum to treat puffiness, bagging and aging signs around the eyes - Skinception elasticity - With this product you can reduce aging changes around and under the eyes, like crow's feet, laugh lines, darkened skin and puffiness. The product works by boosting the production of structural factors necessary for a youthful skin structure an by making the skin using these factors to repair the damages.

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Anti-aging hair care products

Hair care set to help against thin hair and baldness - for men and women - This is a total hair care package with effective substances to treat hair loss - containing a shampoo, a gel and herbal supplement. Loss or thin hair can also be a problem for women, and the product is suited as well for women as for men.

Please click here to learn more or buy - Profollica

Increase your hair growth regain hair - for both sexes - Advecia is a new all-natural herbal supplement with ingredients proven to provide hair follicles with essential nutrients that aid in strengthen the hair follicle and the production of hair from the follicles. It may slow down or stop hair loss and may rewake dormant follicles.

Please click here to learn more or buy - Advecia

Problems with unwanted hair? - With this product you can get rid of unwanted body hair permanently and painless. Ultra Hair Away - hair inhibitor frees both men and women from painful and costly processes like waxing, electrolysis, sugaring or laser. With this product you get smooth hairless skin through an enzymatic technology. You simply shave the area where you want to remove body hair, and then spray the product upon this area.  After some time the hair stops growing out.

Stopgrowthnow - topical hair remover for women and men - Removes unwanted hair by interrupting the initial phace of the growth of a new hair, thins out existing hair, reduces hair size. It decreases need for vaxing and shaving.

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Good online stores of skin care and anti-aging products

Natural medicines, anti-aging and wellness therapy product - also all types of herbs in bulk, kuichen products and gardening products - This is a general store of natural medicines and products for body comfort. It also has a huge inventory of herbs, teas, coffees, kuitchen equipment and gardening tools.

Car tools and much more

Innovative products to rejuvenate and repair sexual functions and all important aspects of bodily anatomy, beauty and physiology - Innovative products to make hair grow better or to take away unwanted hair. Innovative natural drugs to treat skin conditions like acne, rosacea, stretch marks and uneven color. Products to enhance physiology and to rejuvenate the whole body: the skin, the circulation, the digestion, the joints, the sexual functions, mental capacities and physical endurance. Help to enhance sexual satisfaction. Innovative drugs to enhance muscles and to help by slimming

Please click here to see all the anti-aging and rejubenation drugs in the stor - Famous quality cosmetics for good prizes - For men and women. Worldwide shipping. All cosmetic preparations from each producent. A few producent examples: Kiehl's, Kinerase, Klein Becker, Kose, L'Occitane, L'Oreal, La Mer, La Prairie, Lancaster, Lancome, Laura Mercier, Lierac, MAC, Mason Pearson, Mavala Switzerland, MD Skincare, Monteil, Murad, N.V. Perricone M.D., Natura Bisse, Nina Ricci, Nioxin, Origins, Orlane, Paula Dorf, Payot, Perlier, Peter Thomas Roth, Philosophy, Phyto, Prada, Prescriptives, Prevage, Re Vive, Rodan + Fields.

PRODUCTS FOR PREVENTION, CURE OR SUPPORT BY A LOT OF DISEASES - Acne, aging symptoms, AIDS, allergies, Alzheimers disease/dementia, angina, arthritis (osteoarthritis), arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis), asthma, attention deficit disorder (ADD), breast cancer, burns, carpal tunnel syndrome, cholesterol, cronic bronchitis, chronic cough, chronic fatigue sydrom, cognitive problems, colds and flue, congestive heart failure (CHF), Crohn`s disease, depression, diabetes mellitus type 1, diabetes mellitus type 2, eczema, edema, endometriosis, fatigue, fibromyalgia, hair loss, herpes simplex, hyperlipidemia, hypertention, obesity, otitis media.

Pleace lick here to find the right product

Links exhibition of other products:

VigRXPlus - pills for men to enhance erection potency, increase erection size and boost good feelings - click here

Provestra - pills for women to stimulate lubrication, sexual functions, dezire and feelings, fine to regain the taste for sex by stressful periods - click here

VigRXoil- cream for men to give immediate hard stable erections and good feelings - click here

Vigorell - cream for women to stimulate functions in the genital region and tease up her most intimate sensations - click here

Even more roducts to improve and develop sexual life - please click here

Products for repair and enhancement cars and other vehicles

Items to prevent or help against specific manifest diseases in all body regions

Skin care and cosmetics

Clothes and fashion

Sport and fitness equipment

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Some educational resources

Here you find articles about skin and skin aging. We also have other articles with in depth information. To see a list of these, please click here.

Generally about the skin and its functions

The skin is the largest organ of the body. As our major interface with the environment, the skin, composed of specialized epithelial and connective tissue cells, has many protective and synthetic functions.


A. Protection

The skin acts as a barrier against such things as water loss/entry, chemicals, bacteria and fungic as well as against minor trauma.

This function is served by the lipids and proteins of the stratum corneum, the outermost epidermal layer, which is continually sloughed off and regenerated.

The stratum corneum varies in thickness: Thin on the upper arm, thick on the soles, palms, and areas of chronic friction.

Beneath the dermis is the subcutanous fat (hypodermis), a thermal barrier and mechanical cushion which varies in thickness from person to person and in various anatomic sites.


Elaborate neural receptors and small nerve endings mediate touch, position, pressure, temperature, and pain.

C. Thermoregulation via the eccrine sweat gland apparatus

D. Immunological defense via the Langerhans cells

E. Vitamin-D synthesis in response to sun exposure

F. Pigmentation/color for UV protection

G. Wound Healing

H. Reproductive function




The epidermis forms the external surface of the skin and is mainly composed of keratinocytes which differentiate to form 4 layers, the Stratum Basale (basal layer), Stratum Spinosum (spinous or prickle cell layer), Stratum Granulosum (granular layer), and Stratum Corneum (surface layer).

a. Stratum Basale

The basal layer consists of 1 cell layer of cuboidal cells attached by hemi-desmosomes to a thin basement membrane which separates it from the underlying dermis. Mitotic figures are usually in this layer, and the cells are interconnected by desmosomes and gap junctions.

b. Stratum Spinosum

Above the basal layer is the spinous or prickle cell layer so named because of the prickly appearance at high magnification due to the fine cell processes containing desmosomes attaching one polyhedral-shaped cell to another. ( NOTE: If these desmosomes are damaged, as in the autoimmune disease pemphigus, the epidermal cells become separated, a process called acantholysis, and an intraepidermal blister results). Active protein synthesis occurs in this layer, producing a fibrillar protein keratin which aggregates to form tonofibrils. These tonofibrils migrate to the granular layer to eventually become part of the keratin complex (see Stratum Granulosum).

c. Stratum Granulosum

Above the spinous layer is the granular layer, in which each keratinocyte contains basophilic keratohyalin granules. The protein filaggrin is a major component of these granules, and it is thought to bind to the keratin filaments (a modified form of the tonofibrils produced in the spinous layer) to form the keratin complex. The cells also synthesize lipids which are believed to serve as "intercellular cement".

d. Stratum Corneum

The outer layer of the epidermis is the corneal layer which consists of fully keratinized, flat, fused cells bound together by lipids synthesized in the granular layer. The protein involucrin is produced in the stratum granulosum and corneum and forms a thickened protein layer on the inner surface of the plasma membrane.


a. Keratinocytes:

The Basal keratinocyte is a mitotically active cell (analogous to the stem cell of bone marrow), which differentiates terminally from the basal (least keratin) to the cornified cells (most keratin). As it migrates upward, there is progressive synthesis of keratin proteins, which constitute part of the protective interface between the body and the environment. The migration process normally takes approximately 28 days (NOTE: This cell turnover process is abnormally rapid in psoriasis).

b. Melanocytes (pigment cells):

Produce melanin for skin pigmentation, which is partially protective against UV radiation. These cells are derived from the neural crest and migrate to the basal layer of the epidermis during fetal development, where they become interspersed among the keratinocytes by 8-10 weeks of gestation in the cephalic skin and by the 4th month of gestation in the caudal regions. Melanosomes (pigment containing granules produced within melanocytes) are present in melanocyte dendrites and are transferred to surrounding keratinocytes.

The melanocytes tend to form a cap over the keratinocyte nucleus and partially protect it from UV radiation. Melanin synthesis is controlled by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) from the pituitary gland. (NOTE: Some pigment cells fail to remain in their basal destination, instead re-entering the dermis as nests of pigment cells (*gross photo). These nests form the melanocytic nevi which may be acquired during postnatal life or may be congenital. Some uncommon melanocytic nevi arise by failure of migration into the epidermis. Nevi will be discussed in the section titled "Disorders of Melanocytes").

c. Langerhans' cells:

These are dendritic antigen-presenting cells intimately involved in immunological responses in the skin.

d. Merkel cells:

Merkel cells are neuroendocrine cells which form a small percentage of the cells in the basal layer. They have contact with small unmyelinated nerve endings and may function as a slow mechanoreceptor.



The dermis is separated from the epidermis by the basement membrane and this junction consists of the interlocking rete ridges and dermal papillae. The dermis is divided into 2 layers, the papillary dermis and the reticular dermis.


Fibroblasts(synthesize collagen, elastin, and reticulin), histiocytes, endothelial cells, perivascular macrophages and dendritic cells, mast cells, smooth musce, and cells of peripheral nerves and their end-organ receptors.


a. Fibrous

This consists largely of collagen (Type I collagen) and reticulin (Type III collagen), which provide tensile strength. Elastic fibers provide for restoration of shape after a deformation

b. Ground substance

This constantly undergoes synthesis and degradation, and consists largely of glycosaminoglycans: hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate.


This layer contains adipose tissue made up of fat cells and serves to attach the dermis to its underlying tissues. The fat cells also serve as depocit of nutrients for the body, mostly energy reserves in the form of fat. The fat also is a protective pad for the underlaying body structures against physical impacts. In this layer one also has the greater blood veins and arteries that serve the skin. Also this layer has some fibers that give some rigidity.

D. ADNEXCTAL STRUCTURES (epidermal appendages)

these components are of epidermal origin and extend into the dermis and partly the subdermis too. They include the pilosebaceous unit (hair follicle, sebaceous glands, arrector pili muscle), exocrine sweat glands (and, in some locations, apocrine sweat glands), and nails.


Keratins are the cytoskeletal components of all cells of epithelial origin, varying in molecular weight depending on the type of epithelia. Keratin is one of the 5 classes of intermediate filaments, each found in a different cell type.

Intermediate filaments (10nm): These serve a distinct cytoskeletal function. Three of the 5 classes of intermediate filaments are found in the skin: Keratin, Vimentin, and Desmin. Keratin is composed of both acidic keratin and basic keratin, which together function to strengthen and stiffen the intercellular junctions and laminate to form protective layers. Vimentin is the major cytoskeletal protein of connective tissue cells, melanocytes and Langerhans cells. Desmin filaments hold myofibrils in place in muscle cells.

Different forms of keratines: The differentiated state of epidermal cells--basal or granular layer-- determines which of the 20 various polypeptides will be produced. There are keratin polypeptides which can be recognized only in the basal cell layer--the low molecular weight (50,000-58,000)-- and others,which are of high molecular weight (57,000-67,000) and appear first in the spinous and granular layers. Other keratin polypeptides are found in all epidermal cells. Several different keratins are made in nails, hair, and stratum corneum.

The aging of the skin


The processes of aging differ in male and female skin.
In men, there is a gradual thinning of male skin with increasing age of approximately 1% per year. On the other hand the thickness of most women's skins remains surprisingly constant until the menopause, after which there is a significant and sometimes dramatic thinning with increasing age.

There is a relationship between skin thickness and collagen content in men of all ages. A similar relationship exists among women over 60 years of age, but it is less evident in younger women.

In adult skin, the features of aging are closely related to the total collagen content, which in both sexes decreases with increasing age, but at different rates.

In later life women may look. Older than men of the same age and similar experience of sun exposure, partly because their skin has a lower collagen content to start with. Another reason for the gender difference in skin collagen content may be the difference in male hormone production between men and women.

In women, estrogen and androgen output from the ovaries and adrenal glands falls after menopause, resulting in decreased collagen synthesis and repair.

Aging related to the failure of estrogen production at the menopause accentuates intrinsic aging, and together with photoaging may dramatically increase the apparent age of a menopausal woman.
Estrogen deficiency particularly affects the fibroblasts of the dermis, and thinning of the skin is primarily related to a decrease in the production of collagen. This decrease is relatedto a decline of bone mineral content with age, which can lead to the condition of osteoporosis. The fibroblasts are also responsible for the synthesis of the dermis ground substance, particularly glycoproteins and hyaluronic acid (which is able to bind water). The decrease in fibroblast activity with age accounts for the decreased dermal hydration. Skin elasticity decreases with age, but the effect is more marked in women than in men.

In the epidermis, a lack of estrogen slows down the activity of the basal keratinocytes,and consequently leads to epidermal atrophy. This atrophic fragile skin is less well protected by the normal surface film of lipids, because of the slow decline in sebum secretion experienced by everyone as they age. The stratum corneum barrier is less effective, and the skin may develop reactions to irritants, particularly if skin care has been inadequate or too aggressive.


The skin is subject to the same aging process as other body tissues. The skin is also directely influenced by additional environmental facors accelerating the aging process, of which sunlight is the most important

Repeated exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight causes skin to age prematurely-a condition called photoaging. Photoaged skin has wrinkles, brown spots, changes in pigmentation and surface roughness. These skin changes are not part of the natural, normal aging process.

The most likely cause for the visible wrinkling associated with photoaging is the breakdown of collagen-the major structural material in skin. Ninety-five percent of the dermis, or underlying layer of skin, is made of collagen.

Ultraviolet radiation in sunlight triggers a molecular chain reaction which produces large amounts of enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs break apart and degrade collagen. While skin has a natural ability to repair damaged collagen, these repairs are never perfect.

Tiny amounts of at first invisible scar tissue build up over time and eventually become visible as wrinkles (photoaging).

U-M scientists found that MMP levels in dermal skin were directly associated with the length and frequency of exposure to ultraviolet light. Exposure to small amounts of UV (too small to cause skin redness) every other day was enough to induce sustained MMP production at high levels in the individuals in this study.

Pretreating skin with retinoic acid before UV exposure inhibited production of MMPs and resulting collagen damage by 70 to 80 percent in the U-M study. Because it blocks MMP production, retinoic acid should also prevent photoaging, although more research will be needed to know for sure.

The possibility of photoaging prevention is a surprising outcome of this study. Retinoic acid is already approved by the FDA to treat photoaging that has already happened. But until now, the possibility that vitamin A and retinoic acid might prevent photoaging has not been seriously considered.

While retinoic acid blocks MMP production, it has no effect on the skin's ability to produce enzymes called Tissue Inhibitors of MetalloProteinases (TIMPs) which naturally prevent MMP-induced collagen damage. Retinoic acid may prevent photoaging by reducing amounts of harmful enzymes in the dermis, while maintaining normal levels of tissue-protecting proteins (TIMPs).

Future research will attempt to discover how retinoic acid blocks MMP activation when skin is exposed to ultraviolet light. U-M scientists are exploring the role played by a protein called AP-1, which "turns on" genes in skin cells causing them to produce both MMPs and TIMPs.

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