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Explanations about the scientific method and about terms relating to aviation and aircrafts

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The scientific method is the way scientists are working, or at least try to work, because it is not allways possible to behave like a prescribed ideal. It consist of several steps: - First one does some observations in some field, for example physics. The observations are ideally done several times under equal conditions using exactly calibrated measure instrumnts, exactly calibrated photografic equipmnt or other exactly calibrated equipmnt that give a record of the observation.

Sometimes it is conveniant to take specimens under equal conditions and then preparing these specimens in exactly the same way before doing measures and observarions on the specimens.

Sometimes it is not possible to measure with calibrated instruments, but one have to observe manually. In these cases one still tries to make several observations under equal condition, Then both the conitions and the observation are written down using a standarized language and a standarized formula.

- After having recorded the observations one tries to make a unified description of the thing that have been observed that comprizes all the aspects of the observations. In scienses like phyics and chemistry this description will ideally use mathematics and formulas with an exact interpretations.

Then one must observe still more times under the same equal conditions to see if the description made, really predict the right kind of occurances under the same conition. These observations should ideally be performed by another team and that team should write a critic about the initial claimes about what has been observed.

Then one tries to explain the observations using more simple facts allready known or by using more simple new basic assumptions - so called axioms. Such an explanation will also typically be mathematical in sciences where that is possible. One then have a scientific hypothesis

Having an hypothesis one then tries to find out if the hypothesis will really predict the observations made under the conditions that existed. Typicaly one will put parmeters into the mathematical formulas in the hypothesis than were actual during the initial observation.

Having an hypothesis one also tries to find out if the hypothesis will predict new observations under some new condition. Typicaly one will put other parmeters into the mathematical formulas in the hypothesis than those during the initial observation.

At last one does experiements where those other conditions described by the new paramter values are ruling. One then can see if the hypothesis really is able to predict also new observations. When this is confirmed one has a new scientific theory.

Also the experiments under the new parameter values should be confirmed by another independent team that then writes a critic about the theory.


Remote control models: Models of vehicles or machines of which the user can control all aspects of operation, like: Speed, direction of movement, spatial position, operaration of integrated tools, operation of accessories or operation of motor.

VTOL - Vertical take off and landing: Denotes an aeroplane that can lift itself up in the air and land vertically, and thus does not need any running ground to gain speed before taking off or halt after having landed. A helicopter is the most typical VTOL, but there also exist  VTOL jet fighters (Harrier).

Fusledge: The fuseledge is the main body of an aeroplane that carries all the other parts directly or indirectly. Usully the people's cabine is placed in the fuseledge and the wings directly attached to it, but other wing arrangements are possible.

Tail booms: Some airplanes do not have tail wings and a tail rudder at the back end of the fuseledge, but instead they have two booms extending backwards from each wings, with a tail rudder at the back of each boom, and with a tail wing going form one boom to the other.

Vortex: A latin word for a whirl.